Welcome to the second instalment of our analysis of the MCSE
exam number 70-059 - Internetworking TCP/IP with Microsoft Windows NT 4.0. Last month we
looked at the Planning and Installation, and Configuration sections. This month we
complete the exam by reviewing the Connectivity, Monitoring and Optimisation, and
The Connectivity Section
What to Revise
TCP/IP Applications, SNMP, RAS, Unix Connectivity, Browsing, PPTP, WINS Static Entries,
1. TCP/IP Applications
There is a host (no pun intended) of TCP/IP applications. Although you arent
required to know detailed information on them all, the information in the following table
could come up in the exam.
||Bi-directional file transfer
||As above but connectionless
|RCP (Remote Copy)
||Copies files to/from a Unix host
||Provides terminal emulation to a Telnet server
|RSH (Remote Shell)
||Runs commands on a Unix host
||Runs a process remotely
||Prints to an LPD print service
||Queries queue status of an LPD print service
SNMP stands for Simple Network Management Protocol and is primarily used for remotely
gathering statistics from TCP/IP devices such as routers and gateways. Windows NT comes
with an SNMP client service. This allows a third party SNMP management utility to query
the NT machine remotely over a TCP/IP internetwork. The information that can be queried is
held in MIBs (Management Information Bases). NT 4.0 supports the following MIBs:
|Internet MIB II
||Defined by an RFC, this MIB contains general
information for fault or configuration analysis
|LAN Manager MIB II
||Statistical, share, user, session and logon
||Monitoring of DHCP server activity
||Monitoring of WINS server activity
The SNMP service must be installed and NT restarted for SNMP client functionality to be
made available. The NT Server Resource Kit includes a command line-based utility called
SNMPUTIL which can be used to query the SNMP MIBs.
The SNMP service can be configured to work in one or more communities. A community is a
group defined to allow administrative jurisdictional areas. For security, you can also
specify the IP addresses of hosts whose SNMP commands you wish this SNMP client to respond
When the SNMP service is installed, the TCP/IP objects and counters are added to
Performance Monitor. As with the majority of NT services, the current service pack should
be re-applied after adding or removing the SNMP service.
When configuring a RAS server to act as a dial-up router to the Internet, leave the
default gateway blank, otherwise it will override the setting given by the ISP. You should
also make a change in the registry to prevent the RAS server from changing the destination
IP address of the client to that of the RAS server. The entry to add is
which should be set to a value of 0.
4. Unix Connectivity
You will be asked scenario-based questions about how to get Unix and Windows servers and
clients to talk to each other over a TCP/IP internetwork. Remember that you either have to
resolve name resolution issues by using HOSTS files or by using a DNS server. You can
automate host name resolution by configuring the DNS server to query your WINS server.
If you are using DHCP, remember to exclude any IP addresses used by non-DHCP clients such
as Unix hosts from the scope or scopes.
If you are using WINS, you can set up a WINS proxy agent to assist non-WINS clients to
resolve names and you can set up static entries in the WINS database for WINS clients to
be able to resolve names of non-WINS clients.
You are likely to get scenario-based questions for configuring LMHOSTS files for
multi-domain browsing over multiple subnets. Refer to last months issue, in the
Domain Functions over Multiple Subnets of my article for details on how to configure
Point to Point Tunnelling Protocol is used as a secure mechanism for sending packets
through a TCP/IP network. Because it first establishes a secure, TCP/IP connection using
CHAP and 40-bit encryption, not only is the data secure but it can also be transferred
using IPX/SPX, NetBEUI or TCP/IP through the tunnel.
PPTP is most commonly used as a secure dial-up mechanism over the Internet from a roaming
or home user to the corporate RAS server. NTs RAS service can be configured for PPTP
filtering, which means that only PPTP packets are accepted over the RAS connection.
PPTP works with PSTN, ISDN or X.25 hardware.
7. WINS Static Entries
You can add several types of static entry to a WINS server:
||Used for hosts with a single NIC (network
||Used for hosts with multiple NICs, such as
||Used for multicast groups
||Used for all hosts with an 0x20 service
||Used for defining domain controllers of a given
8. NetBIOS Scope
The NetBIOS scope is used to group computers in the Network Neighbourhood browse lists.
Computers in a scope can see only computers in the same scope. A scope name is configured
from the WINS Address tab of TCP/IP Properties.
The Monitoring and Optimisation Section
What to Revise:
Network Monitor is used to capture frames across the network. It is installed as a
separate service from Control Panel, Network. Network Monitor comprises two components
tools, which we interface with to stop, start, view and analyse captures and agent,
which works with the NIC to perform the capture. You can install either tools and agent or
agent only. The Network Monitor tools can work with an agent installed on the local
machine or any other Windows NT computer. There is also an agent available for Windows
95/98. The version of Network Monitor that comes with Windows NT is limited to capturing
only broadcast frames and frames either to or from the computer where the agent is
installed. There is a full version of Network Monitor that comes with Microsoft SMS
(Systems Management Server) that will capture all frames on the network, regardless of
their origination or destination. Familiarise yourself with how to stop, start and view
captures and, in particular, the functionality of the filter options.
2. TCP/IP Diagnostics Utilities
As with TCP/IP applications, familiarise yourself with the basic functionality and common
switches of the following utilities:
||Verifies TCP/IP connectivity between hosts
||Verifies local IP configuration
||Retrieves basic system information from a remote
||Queries a DNS server
||Returns the local host name
||Displays TCP/IP statistics
||Displays NetBIOS over TCP/IP statistics
including the name cache
||Displays and modifies the local routing table
||Verifies the route to a specified host over an
||Displays and modifies the ARP cache
The Troubleshooting Section
What to Revise:
WINS Proxy Agent
If connectivity on the network fails, you should first of all determine if it is a name
resolution issue. If so, is it a host name resolution issue or a NetBIOS name resolution
issue? To discover this, try connecting to the remote host using both a host name (eg PING
hostname) and a NetBIOS name (eg NET USE J: . The one that fails is the one with the
Check to see if other clients can connect to the server using that name resolution method.
If they can, then it is likely to be a problem with the client, if not it could be a
problem either with the server, a name resolution service or the underlying network.
On the client, check the local IP Address details to make sure that they are correct,
paying special attention to the WINS and DNS server settings. If you are not using WINS or
DNS, check that the remote host is either on the same subnet as the client or that the
client has an entry for the remote host in its HOSTS or LMHOSTS file in
<systemroot>\system32\drivers\etc. If there is an entry for the remote host, check
that the IP address and name have been entered correctly and check that there isnt
another entry for the same name elsewhere in the file. If there is not an entry, add one.
The higher up the list you add the entry, the faster the search will be for resolving that
remote hosts IP address.
2. Using PING
PING stands for Packet INternet Groper and it is used to check for connectivity between
two TCP/IP hosts. PING is most commonly used using the command-line utility of the same
name. At the prompt simply type PING followed by a space then either the host name or the
IP address of the remote host and press return. The local host will now send four ICMP
(Internet Control Message Protocol) Echo Request packets to the remote host. If the host
receives the Echo Requests, it will send four ICMP Echo Reply packets back to the local
host. This process will be displayed to the user along with a TTL (time to live) for the
packets. One or more successful replies indicates that connectivity exists between the
local and remote host. (Less than four successful replies indicates intermittent problems
on the network).
If you attempt to PING a remote host using its host name and do not get a reply, try
PINGing it using its IP address. If this attempt succeeds where the first attempt failed,
this indicates a host name resolution issue.
3. Using IPCONFIG
IPCONFIG is used at the command line to show details of the local hosts IP
addressing configuration. This can be used to verify addressing details whilst
troubleshooting. Whilst this information can also be viewed from the TCP/IP Properties
dialogue box for a statically configured host, if the local host is a DHCP client, the
TCP/IP Properties dialogue box will be blank.
IPCONFIG comes with some switches that can be used to enhance its functionality.
||Returns IP address, subnet mask and default
gateway parameters for the first NIC only
||Provides more detailed IP addressing information
about all NICs installed on the host, including WINS and DNS settings
||For DHCP clients, releases the current IP
address lease back to the DHCP server
||For DHCP clients, renews the current IP address
lease from the DHCP server. If there is no current IP address lease, or the request for
renewal fails, a request for a new IP address will be sent
4. WINS Proxy Agent
If you have non-WINS hosts such as Unix workstations on a multiple-subnet TCP/IP network
where not all subnets have a WINS server present locally, you will need to configure a
WINS Proxy Agent (a WINS client set to pick up name resolution request broadcasts and pass
them on as directed messages to the WINS server). You will require one WINS Proxy Agent
for each subnet that does not have its own local WINS Server. (If you do have multiple
WINS servers, you will of course need to configure replication between them.)
This concludes the two-part review of the Internetworking TCP/IP with Windows NT 4.0
examination. Remember to concentrate on subnetting for this exam as you are likely to be
asked more questions about this than about anything else. Next month we will begin a
run-down of our second elective exam Implementing Exchange Server 5.5, which not
only is a very popular and useful elective to choose in its own right, but is also an
excellent stepping stone to understanding Windows 2000, as several of the fundamental
concepts are the same.
Richard Adams is director of SkillShelf an IP and
Internet consultancy and training provider.
If you are still looking for help and good advice to pass this examination then the MCSE
Rapid Review Guide to TCP/IP for Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 by Michael A. Pastore is a must
for anyone studying towards this examination. Thisoffers an essential guide to:
Installing and configuring TCP/IP and its services on Windows NT 4.0
Understanding TCP/IP protocols and the related Windows NT utilities
Assigning IP addresses, using subnet masks, and configuring static and dynamic routing
Understanding address and name resolution
Connecting to heterogeneous environments
Monitoring and optimising TCP/IP performance on Windows NT
Answering users questions about TCP/IP.
This is just one study guide in the series from 29th Street Press. This series offers
guidance in the form of a manageable book that helps candidates monitor their own progress
toward the elusive MCSE qualification. These guides present only the details that you
really need to know. It includes frequent review questions, hands-on activities,
vocabulary checklists and troubleshooting summaries to measure your improvement.
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