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Glossary - A


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Every now and then we come across terminology that leaves us scratching our heads as to the meaning of certain acronyms, buzzwords or new IT terms emanating from our friends at Redmond (or Reading!). With this in mind, we've put together a glossary of terms for you to use, print off or cut-n-paste to your desktop which will help you sort out your ASPs (Active Server Pages) from your ASPs (Application Service Provider).
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A Address record. A DNS resource record that maps a Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) to an IP address.
ACE An access control entry is the basic unit of Windows NT security. ACEs controll access to NTFS and Active Directory (AD) objects, printers, and Registry keys. ACEs consist of a SID, which represents a security principal such as a user or group, and an access mask, which defines the access rights of that SID. A collection of ACEs that control access to an object is an ACL.
ACL The access control list (ACL) is a collection of access control entries (ACEs) that define the access rights to an NT object.
ACPI The Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) is an industry standard that defines power management on computers and peripherals, and it plays an important role in the power management and Plug and Play (PnP) features of Windows 2000 (Win2K). ACPI is also the key to the OnNow industry technology that vendors are using to build systems that start instantly when you touch a key. In Win2K, the Control Panel's Power Options let you manage different power schemes that take advantage of ACPI.
AD The Active Directory is Windows 2000's (Win2K's) directory service. AD is a hierarchical namespace that serves as a Win2K network's backbone. The service uses a multimaster replication model in which each domain controller maintains a read-write copy of the directory. AD is highly scalable.
ADSI Active Directory Service Interfaces. An interface to simplify accessing AD objects.
Allocation unit size Also known as cluster size, allocation unit size is the smallest amount of hard disk space that Win2K uses to hold a file. Smaller allocation unit sizes result in more efficient use of hard disk space. You can specify the allocation unit size when you format a hard disk drive. If you don't specify a size, Win2K defaults to a size based on the size of the volume. Use format /A:[size] at the command prompt to override the default, where [size] can be 512, 1024, 2048, 4096, 8192, 16K, 32K, and 64K for FAT, FAT32, and NTFS. FAT and FAT32 also support 128K and 256K for sector sizes greater than 512 bytes. You can't use NTFS compression for allocation unit sizes larger than 4096 bytes.
Attribute A characteristic of an Active Directory (AD) object; often called a property in Widows 2000 (Win2K), especially in reference to replication.
Authenticated users A Win2K group whose membership the OS or the domain controls. In Windows NT 4.0, administrators control Administrators and Users groups, and the OS or the domain controls the Everyone group, which you can use to assign permissions. In Win2K, administrators can control the Administrators, the Power Users, and the Users groups; Authenticated Users is the only group the OS can control. Unlike the Everyone group, the Authenticated Users group doesn’t contain anonymous or guest users. By default, the Authenticated Users group is a member of Power Users group.